Development of the international production, scientific and technical revolution and other factors of internationalization of economic life stimulated trade in licenses, a know-how, other types scientific and technical and a know-how, leasing operations, business consultations and other services of production and personal character.
Thus, in the work I tried to open concept of the balance of payments, to state its essence and structure, to consider the factors influencing the balance of payments to investigate the main methods of its regulation and to give the characteristic of lines and features of the balance of payments in Republic of Belarus.
In my opinion, monetary approach to the analysis of the balance of payments can meet this lack. The main line of such approach is that the balance of payments is considered not as the movement of goods and services, and as a monetary and financial phenomenon.
With growth of welfare in the developed countries scales of the international tourism as a part of which the considerable part is made by business trips in connection with internationalization of modern production sharply increased.
From the point of view of the long-term analysis also has essential value the nature of deficiency of a current account. If deficiency is caused by negative trade balance and thus means additional investments into production potential, its effect on economy can be positive. If it is about excess consumption not of investment goods, the long-term effect will be negative though there are bases to assume that additional consumption can lead to growth of a standard of living that, in turn, can promote increase in productivity (that domestic practice does not confirm). If a basis of deficiency of a current account is the negative balance according to the income, most likely, the country needs to solve a problem of external loan.
Dual influence of export of the capital on the balance of payments of the export country is that it increases its passive, but forms base for inflow to the country of percent and dividends through a certain period. However inflow of percent and dividends decreases at reinvestment of part of profits in the country of the application of the capital. For example, branches of the American corporations in Western Europe reinvest about a half of the profits got in this region. Export of the capital distracts means which could be used for modernization of export branches.
Toughening of a trade regime if it takes the form of introduction of additional duties on import or export subsidies, will also lead to increase in cumulative expenses. If it is shown in the form of quantitative restrictions on import, effect will be analogous, but already because of narrowing of a freedom of choice.
private operations - transfers of foreign workers, experts, relatives home. Great economic value has this appearance of operations. Italy, Turkey, Spain, Greece, Portugal, Pakistan, Egypt and other countries pay much attention to regulation of trip abroad of the citizens on earnings as use this source of considerable currency receipts for development of economy. For Germany, France, Great Britain, Switzerland, the USA, the Republic of South Africa and other countries which are temporarily involving foreign workers and experts, on the contrary, such money transfers are a source of deficiency of this article of the balance of payments.
From the accounting point of view the balance of payments always is in balance. But according to its main sections or the active balance if receipts exceed payments takes place, or passive - if payments exceed receipts.
The countries, with the scarce balance of payments, usually undertake the following actions for the purpose of stimulation of export, control of import of goods, attraction of the foreign capitals, restrictions of export of the capitals.